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Rattleboxes and Rabbit Bells

20 May

Crotalaria species

Fabaceae

 

This morning was a time to help John photodocument the aftereffects of fires in Jonathan Dickinson State Park,   although charred boonies aren’t all that aesthetic.  Scattered around the park are yellow flowery Rattleboxes.   Rattleboxes are species of Crotalaria;  Rattlesnakes  are  in part species of Crotalus.   What do rattleboxes and rattlesnakes have in common?  Beyond the rattle…poison.   Showy Rattlebox, C. spectabilis, has killed horses, sometimes after a prolonged delay.     Researchers apply the toxin deliberately to suppress an animal’s blood pressure.

Crotalaria spectabilis Jan1

Showy Rattlebox (by John Bradford)

But don’t they eat Rattlebox seeds around the world?   Yes, but…There are hundreds of species of Crotalaria of unequal nastiness.    Being on the menu is no guarantee of complete safety, as not every culture has a long life expectancy,  and diet-related illnesses may be cryptic.     (Rattleboxed horses sometimes die in the possession of their next owner.) Here’s the obvious thing:  do not eat wild plants.    Read about them in Treasure Coast Natives,   take beautiful photos, and then buy veggies properly.

CrotalariaSpectabilis

Showy Rattlebox by Wendys

Showy Rattlebox is abundant locally, with pizzazz yellow blossoms an inch across.  It differs from most local relatives by having simple (vs. compound) leaves.  Such a showboat might be assumed to have come from its native tropical Asia as a garden flower, but no.   The Florida arrival is more interesting, so read on:

The superstar plant introducer in  earlier Florida—and there were many—was David Fairchild, immortalized at Fairchild Gardens in Coral Gables.  Fairchild was not a mere plant introducer on steroids but equally a  champion “social networker.”   His friends,  associates, and patrons included the rich, influential,  and famous of that era, including notables in science and industry:  Henry Flagler,  Charles Deering of International Harvester (his brother built Vizcaya),   Glenn Curtiss of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company,  Orville Wright,  Thomas Edison,  and you get the idea.    Fairchild’s father-in-law was Alexander Graham Bell.    Accounts vary, but Fairchild was directly or indirectly responsible for the introduction of a couple hundred thousand exotic species, crops, varieties, and cultivars of plants.

A tree Fairchild brung from China and distributed in the U.S. 1905-1907 was Tung Oil (Aleurites fordii),  then valuable in products from printing ink to ammunition.  In the early 20th Century Tung  supported 400 growers in and near Alachua County,  but then it fell into disgrace as a  Category II invasive exotic.   Times change.

This all leads back to Crotalaria spectabilis.   Tung farms grew predominantly on poor sandy soils left denuded from pine deforestation.   The system needed enrichment, and Fairchild introduced  Showy Rattlebox in the U.S. around 1914 as a sand-loving, heat-tolerant, nitrogen-fixing legume to goose up the Tung.  And as an added benefit, Fairchild suggested Showy Rattlebox to deter nematodes, especially among papayas.   He apparently was not fully aware of the dangerous livestock toxicity.    As with Tung, Showy Rattlebox slipped from celebrity to invasive weed and veterinary menace.

Farmers could not afford commercial fertilizer during The Great Depression.   Growing Crotalaria for nitrogen fixation and as green manure was a comparatively cheap alternative.   One agricultural agent reported purchase of over 20,000 pounds of Crotalaria seed (C. spectabilis and C. pallida) in and near Orange County during 1931.   (Crotalaria pallida is another showy introduced Crotalaria, called Smooth Rattlebox, easily distinguished from C. spectabilis by having three-parted leaves.)

Crotalaria rotundifolia 5

Rabbit Bells (JB)

The native Ornate Bella Moth is a Crotalaria specialist feeding naturally on indigenous Crotalaria species.  Due to dietary and ecological expansion, the moth may be a natural biocontrol for the invasive exotic crotalarias, damaging them with gusto while hopefully remaining in better ecological balance with the native species.    There are four native Crotalaria species in Florida, and about 10 invasives.  The moth will be busy for some time, as the seeds can survive 60 years in the soil.

Let’s close with one of the native species, common in JD Park, Crotalaria rotundifolia, better known as Rabbit Bells.  It is just a lil’ rattler, with simple leaves, on sunny sandy soils.    This variable and vaguely defined species makes big poofy inflated pods.    Why should this or any plant make fruits resembling dirigibles?    Simplistic speculations are possible and not mutually exclusive:  for flotation, for temperature insulation, for padding, for isolating seeds from pests and parasites (with perhaps the gas within inhospitable to tiny varmints), or for containing vaporized hormones.   Botanists have discerned another more subtle explanation for inflated pods in other plants.     Seeds respire and give off carbon dioxide.   Carbon dioxide is the main input into photosynthesis.  So why waste it?  In poofy pods the internal air space seems to be a carbon dioxide tank, capturing the “waste” carbon dioxide coming out of maturing seeds and feeding it to the inner pod wall to photosynthesize.    Perhaps out in the bright sun those translucent pods can use light on their otherwise passive inner surfaces, and make the seeds pay their own way with a CO2 toll for the zeppelin ride.

Crotalaria spectabilis pods

Showy RB inflated pods

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5 Comments

Posted by on May 20, 2016 in Uncategorized

 

5 responses to “Rattleboxes and Rabbit Bells

  1. theshrubqueen

    May 21, 2016 at 8:25 am

    Thought the native Crotolaria were creeping instead of upright? I did have some in one of my arrangements! Declined planting in the garden to save my livestock greyhounds.

     
    • George Rogers

      May 21, 2016 at 9:28 am

      I wouldn’t press that distinction too hard. There are basically 4 natives in FL, two of them likely to encounter in our general area: C. rotundifolia (simple lvs) and C. pumila (3-parted lvs). Although both are low-growing, not really “creeping” necessarily.

       
      • theshrubqueen

        May 21, 2016 at 11:10 am

        Aha, thanks, George. I haven’t seen any natives thus far.

        Amelia: You might up your way…beautiful bright yellow “pea” flowers, the plants often a foot or so tall, the leaves simple. The flowers are eye-catching. The hotdog balloon pods help. On sunny sand. Can be abundant in the right places. Can hardly wait to see what vase you use next 🙂

         
  2. Florida native girl

    May 23, 2016 at 7:22 am

    Enjoyable read. I have seen rattlebox along with the beautiful moth in a field by my house in Coconut Creek.

     
    • George Rogers

      May 23, 2016 at 11:37 am

      That’s for sure a treat. Seems like there is a lot of room for research on the moth-crotalaria dynamics—including range expansion???

       

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